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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

BircFs-Eye View of Teutonic Grammar   263

terminal of the third person singular present disappeared early in North
Britain. The -$ ending had already replaced it in the fourteenth
century. During the eighteenth century, the Northumbrian form came
everywhere into its own

Another difference between the Old and the modern English verb is
that the former had a special infinitive form The infinitive, which is the
dictionary form of the verb, does not always correspond to the dic-
tionary form of tiie modem English verb The latter (except that of the

1
 ANGLO-
		BIBLE
	
	

AMERICAN
		ENGLISH
	OLD ENGLISH
	GERMAN

1      > do you j
		I           do thou      doest
	ic        do
 thu      dest
	ich    tu^ *du     tusr

he         does
		he          doeth
	he        deth
	er      tat

we    "^
		we    "I
	we   "I
	wir    tun

you   > do
		you   V   do
	ge     \- doth
	*ihr     tut

they]
		they]
	h.e   j
	sie     tun

I      I
	
	I            did
	ic         dyde
	ich    tat

you
	
	thou      didst
	thu      dydest
	du     tat(e)st

he
	> did
	he    I
	he       dyde
	er      tat

we
	
	we     !     - ,
	we   1
	wir    taten

you
	
	you     **
	ge     > dydon
	ihr     tatet

they
	
	they J
	hie   J
	sie     taten

I have done
		I have done
	ic haebbe gedon
	ich habe getan

I had done
		I had done
	ic haefde gedon
	ich hatte getan

(to) do
		(to) do
	don
	(zu) tun

verb to be) is also the present tense-form of all persons other than the
third singular and is used as an imperative. The Oxford or Webster
dictionary verb corresponds to the typical Teutonic infinitive (a) after
the preposition to (e g try to do this), (b) after certain helper verbs
(p IS0)^ (e g I shall do so myself, if I cannot make him do it). In such
situations other Teutonic languages require a form with its own charac-
teristic terminal In Old English this infinitive ending was ~ians -an
(or -TZ), corresponding to the Dutch or German -en or -/?
* In German the du and ihr forms are used only between intimates and
relatives The Sie form replaces both in other circumstances (see p 146) The
pronoun sie and the possessive ihr (with their case-forms) are always written
or printed with a capital if they stand for the second person, and so are du, ihr>
and detn, eu&r when aced in letters